The challenges of rural Migration to the city has always been a phenomenon that has constituted an obstacle to rural development all over the world, rather than, it has become the concern of many Arab countries, especially the Iraqi countryside, which still faces many obstacles and negatives that prompted most of its residents to migrate to the cities as a result of the lack of job opportunities, hoping to find better job opportunities in cities.
The most important challenges is the countryside:
- Although the Iraqi countryside is a rich storehouse of livestock and agricultural wealth, the productivity of the livestock and agricultural sectors has been negatively affected by the lack of government support and harsh climate changes, which has made the chances of obtaining job opportunities in these two sectors very few.
- Most rural areas in Iraq suffer from a significant shortage of the most important services that are considered basic for the population, such as the lack of electricity, potable water, and the lack of basic educational centers, Lack of health centers, including hospitals, clinics and pharmacies that presence it has become indispensable these days.
- The phenomenon of migration from the countryside to the city has become a major challenge that most countries suffer from, rural areas have become a negative place that affects the quality of life of the population due to the lack of sustainable development and the difficulty of finding economic job opportunities, which has generated great pressure to find work
Rural Challenges and Urban Migration
These days, Iraqi youth prefer to migrate to cities and work in more advanced jobs in modern sectors, which has caused a significant decline in interest in handicrafts and traditional professions and thus led to a worsening of the rural economy.
There are many things and factors that created the challenges of the countryside and migration to the city in Iraq, the most important of which are:
- The residents in Iraq rushed to searching for sustainable income, better services, and better job opportunities in the cities, they were fed up with the constant lack of basic services, such as the lack of potable water, the lack of educational resources, the lack of hospitals or health centers, and the constant power outages. All of these factors made the cities the focus of attention Iraqi youth.
- Populations rushed to migrate to cities where services are available and much better job opportunities after they suffered from difficult challenges in the agricultural sector as a result of climate changes and a significant lack of funding and supporting from the state, which greatly reduced economic job opportunities and worsened the role of agricultural productivity.
- Tribal conflicts and tensions, and problems that generated barbaric and violence have always been the most difficult challenges that have negatively affected the existence of stability and social security. So, residents began to migrate in search of an environment where they would feel safe, stable, and social communication free of violence.
- The Iraqi countryside is suffering from a low level of education and professional development, so, young people have resorted to migrating to the cities in search of better education and in order to place themselves at a high level of professional, educational and cultural development, where intensive training and good education create good jobs and achieve self-development, self-confidence and personal progress.
Challenges of The Iraqi Countryside
Iraq is facing some difficulties in its countryside, which have shaped the challenges of the Iraqi countryside. Appropriate solutions must be developed to overcome these obstacles and create a developed, growing, and sustainable society, in addition to trying to provide suitable job opportunities and a decent life for the people of the Iraqi countryside. However, the most prominent of these challenges facing the Iraqi countryside revolve around:
- Life cannot be complete in any place without the presence of basic indivisible services such as electricity, potable water, and educational and health centers. However, rural Iraq suffers from a significant shortage of these services and the difficulty of accessing them, which has led to complaints among its residents which it has affected their difficult quality of life that it sometimes is impossible, and this is what hinders the development of Iraqi rural communities.
- A large number of Iraq’s rural population has declined, social activity and economic development have receded in rural areas, which has led to an unacceptability of reality, this is the reason for migration of young people and families in search of a dignified, more stable life and great hope of job opportunities.
- Economic opportunities in the countryside have declined significantly as a result of the deterioration of livestock and agricultural infrastructure, harsh climate changes, and the lack of government funding and state support. These factors have had a negative impact on the Iraqi countryside, which depends on livestock and agricultural professions as the main source and part and parcel of the income of every Iraqi individual.
The Reason for Migration from Countryside to City
If we examine deeply the reason for migration from the countryside to the city ,we will find several factors have affected the lives of the population, so they began to leave the countryside and migrate to the cities. The factors in this varied, such as the lack of economic opportunities and a significant lack of basic services, as the countryside suffered from a lack of electricity and water and a lack of educational centers such as hospital, clinics, pharmacies. Therefore, rural residents found a strong attraction to migrate to the city because of the cultural and social development there, in addition to the presence of security stability that is not marred by violence or tribal conflicts.
The most important factors that caused migration from the countryside to the city:
- The lack of infrastructure and its deterioration in some aspects, such as poor transportation, roads, sanitation, and communications. This deficiency affected attracting investments in the Iraqi countryside and negatively affected the development of the social and economic sectors due to the inability to access these services.
- Cities have always been a major vital center that provides job opportunities for various professions. Cities are characterized by advanced services, cultural and social life, and entertainment services. For most rural residents, they are considered an urban environment that attracts people who seek to provide a decent life, work opportunities, improve the quality of life, and benefit from the advantages that fulfill their dreams and satisfy their passions.
- The Iraqi countryside suffers from the threats of terrorism, tribal conflicts, problems of violence, and tribal tensions, which have created security obstacles and challenges to social stability that
is still difficult to achieve. All of this has formed a psychological and social burden on the Iraqi rural youth and its individuals and constitutes an obstacle to sustainable rural development.
The Phenomenon of Urbanization in the world
The phenomenon of urbanization in the world is the process of evolution and development of human societies in terms of social and economic organization, cultural aspects, and technological factors. This phenomenon had an integral reason in shaping the world we live in today, the most important details that you would like to know about the phenomenon of urbanization in the world are:
- The phenomenon of urbanization has formed social systems with high precision and development, where social structures have been improved and developed, such as institutions, governments, and civil societies, in order to provide the most important services and improve the quality and organization of social life.
- Observing the profound development of technology and science in civilized societies, which has facilitated daily routines and improved the quality of life. Urbanization in the world has also achieved vast development in various fields as a result of the development of industry, the development of agriculture, the improvement of aspects such as medicine, communications and transportation, and the repair of road infrastructure.
- Being in a urbanized society makes you coexist with people of different cultures and from diverse backgrounds, the number and diversity of cultures in urbanized societies will make its members learn and participate with each other in exchanging knowledge, experiences, and understanding between their diverse cultures, which positively affects their way of living, so you see both peaceful coexistence and reinforcement tolerance as part and parcel from their entity.
- What distinguishes any civilized society is the development of aspects of science, arts and culture, which has contributed to strengthening the collective spirit to reinforcement knowledge and the exchange of diverse backgrounds of ideas and cultures between individuals and societies, which contributes to the formation of beliefs, values and diverse cultural traditions that reflect the identity of any urbanized society on the one hand and lead to evolution thoughts, developing creativity, and promoting peaceful coexistence and tolerance on the other hand.
- The phenomenon of urbanization in the world faces obstacles that require global cooperation to solve in a sustainable manner, such as poverty, environmental pollution, lack of social justice, and climate changes.
From all of them, we will find that urbanization is a dynamic process that develops over time to contribute mainly to building and advancing societies and achieving social, cultural, and economic development at the same time in the world.
Effective Solutions for Survival in the Iraqi Countryside
If we want effective solutions to stay in the countryside, we must think seriously and prepare to implement these solutions so that we can later enjoy a successful societal and economic life and a sustainable life. Thus, the pressure on civil services will ease and we will reduce population inflation, so the most important effective solutions in this regarding:
- Appreciating natural beauty and reinforcement its presence, in addition to benefiting from the heritage and cultural history of the Iraqi countryside, where rural tourism can be developed by taking nature tours by visiting farms and watching handicrafts, in addition to local food. All of this will provide new job opportunities and improve and strengthen the local economy.
- Strengthening the educational aspect and improving vocational training in the Iraqi countryside so that its youth can acquire creativity and skills that will pave the way to developing the economic aspect, in addition to the possibility of providing practical and theoretical training programs in all fields such as trade, agriculture, and craft industry to increase job opportunities and improve the standards of life.
- Reinforcing the community spirit and social cooperation among local residents, where cultural and social events can be organized, in addition to establishing cooperative associations and activities that stimulate joint work and enhance the process of exchanging experiences and resources on the one hand, and enhance solidarity and social ties on the other hand.
- Working to improve the infrastructure in the Iraqi countryside as much as possible, including communications, water, electricity, and roads, in addition to creating better ways of life and improving their quality by providing basic services that will develop businesses, increase job opportunities, and encourage investments in Iraqi rural areas.
- One of the most important things that can be improved is the agricultural field to remain sustainable and effective, and this can only be done by relying on modern tools and innovative agricultural techniques, such as adopting aquaponics and vertical farming, which will reduce our dependence on external resources and will contribute without a doubt to achieving rural food security.
We are certain without the slightest doubt that the use of these methods will pave the way to prosperity in the Iraqi countryside so that it remains sustainable for its people. However, this can only be achieved by providing the supports, resources and materials that are necessary to increase the level of sustainable development in the countryside on a large scale.
Development of the Iraqi Countryside
If we want to develop the Iraqi countryside, this is done by taking various comprehensive measures to improve the quality of life in the Iraqi rural areas and enhance aspects of sustainable development, and the most important factors that must be implemented are to push towards the issue of developing the Iraqi countryside which are:
- Working to support sustainable agriculture. The agricultural sector has always been one of the most important sources of income for the Iraqi countryside, and its activity can only be supported and enhanced by relying on modern technologies, using advanced tools, and implementing innovative agricultural practices, in addition to training farmers and providing them with information about the best ways to manage natural resources optimally, in addition to providing creative methods of raising livestock and growing crops.
- Encouraging investment in the Iraqi countryside by providing facilities and incentives for investors, in addition to providing both financial support and technical support to all rural projects, whether small or medium, which may enhance and develop the local economy and provide new job opportunities.
- Developing the issue of rural tourism that we can organize tours in the embrace of nature, cultural heritage and agricultural scenes to attract visiting tourists, which will greatly improve the local economy and create diverse and new job opportunities in our Iraqi countryside.
- Developing the infrastructure, including electricity, roads, water, and sewage, which will certainly contribute to the work of the infrastructure in a positive way, which all leads to stimulating access to basic and public services, promoting investment, business development in rural areas.
- Strengthening the field of education and working to improve training methods by providing them to young people in a practical and theoretical way so that they can acquire the skills needed to improve the local economy, in addition to providing intensive training programs in the fields of industry, agriculture and trade to increase the possibility of gaining suitable job opportunities.
The Iraqi rural youth will be able to achieve sustainable development when these measures are implemented, but this cooperation must be strengthened not only between the local residents, but also with the support of the government and cooperation among them with the local community and the private sector in order to develop the Iraqi countryside.
Achievements of Al-Rakizah Foundation in Developing the Iraqi Countryside
Al-Rakiza Foundation is a development organization that works to strengthen and develop communities in the Iraqi countryside, including individuals and rural areas, in addition to the field of stimulating social support. It is also a charitable organization that has distinctive achievements that contributed to creation of rural Iraq again, and among these achievements are:
- Al-Rakaiza Foundation has helped the agricultural sector, in addition to the livestock sector in the Iraqi countryside, also it has provided the best agricultural equipment and the best types of feed and pesticides, in addition to innovating effective training methods. All of this is hope of improving the local population, especially farmers, in addition to increasing productivity, enhancing food security, and improving them in the Iraqi countryside.
- Al Rakiza Foundation stimulated sustainable agricultural practices, encouraged environmental protection and improved sustainable development in both economic and social aspects in rural areas of Iraq.
- Al-Rakiza Foundation seeks to support education and improve vocational training for all fields, in addition to encouraging the pursuit of knowledge in the Iraqi countryside. To this end, educational opportunities and educational centers have been provided for all ages, in addition to training institutes for young men and women in order to acquire knowledge and skills to obtain better job opportunities and improve the standard of life to which they aspire.
- For the sake of young people and women living in the Iraqi countryside, Al-Rakiza Foundation created small and medium businesses and supported them to implement and develop their projects, including providing financing and training, in addition to technical advice, which will improve income and create job opportunities throughout Iraq.
- Al Rakiza Foundation implemented important projects that contributed to improving the infrastructure of the Iraqi countryside. It built roads and bridges and provided important services such as water, electricity, and sanitation services in order to improve the quality of life of the local population.
Al-Rakiza Foundation is still in a continuous race to achieve all the achievements to improve the lives of the local people in the Iraqi countryside, meet their ambitions, and achieve their dreams to live a better life and better work.
Pros and Cons of Migration from the Countryside to the City
The phenomenon of migration from the countryside to the city in Iraq cannot be classified as an absolutely negative phenomenon, nor as a purely positive phenomenon, because these phenomena in any place have negatives and positives that affect the economic and social system of society and its structure as well.
The positives of migration from the countryside to the city are the presence of:
- Education and training that will enable individuals to obtain a high-level education and provide specialized training for any field they desire and love, which increases the chances of achieving what they aspire and securing better jobs with their better salaries.
- The presence of public services in urbanized societies with high-performance public services such as education, infrastructure, transportation, and health care, where individuals can benefit from these services and have an easier life.
- Job opportunities are considered one of the most important goals of migration. Cities provide diverse job opportunities in all sectors, such as industry, services, and trade, which improves individuals’ living conditions and enhances their income.
As for the negatives, it will create problems such as:
- Unemployment: Individuals who came from the countryside to the city will face some obstacles in obtaining suitable work, as there will be strong competition for jobs available in the city, which will increase unemployment rates and lead to their rise.
- Social separation: Individuals coming from the countryside to the city will suffer from social isolation and cultural separation, as they will feel alienated and will face some obstacles and difficulties in their adaptation to the urban environment in a large city.
- Population crowding: Which will lead to severe pressure on public services on the one hand and resources on the other hand, will also negatively affect the costs of living, which will increase and in some cases lead to a decrease in the quality of life.
- Loss of heritage and collapse of culture: The wave of population migration from the countryside to the city will lead to the decline of culture and the decline of traditional rural heritage, which will lead to the loss of both the cultural identity and the historical aspect of Iraqi rural communities.
From here we will see that migration from the countryside to the city will affect the economic system and the social structure of society, but this effect depends on various factors such as the availability of services and economic opportunities in the city to which is migrating, In addition to rate and size of migration, migration may lead to profound changes in the economic, social and population distribution, which requires taking some measures and cooperation between urban and rural areas to improve infrastructure and public services and provide job opportunities in the Iraqi countryside.